Geography of Europe

Geology
Europe’s most significant feature is the dichotomy between highland and mountainous Southern Europe and a vast, partially underwater, northern plain ranging from England in the west to Ural Mountains in the east.[citation needed] These two halves are separated by the mountain chains of Pyrenees and Alps/Carpathians. The northern plains are delimited in the west by the Scandinavian Mountains and the mountainous parts of the British Isles. Major shallow water bodies submerging parts of the northern plains are the Celtic Sea, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea complex, and the Barents Sea.

The northern plain contains the old geological continent of Baltica, and so may be regarded as the “main continent”, while peripheral highlands and mountainous regions in south and west constitute fragments from various other geological continents.

1. Volga – 3,690 km (2,293 mi)
2. Danube – 2,860 km (1,777 mi)
3. Ural – 2,428 km (1,509 mi)
4. Dnieper – 2,290 km (1,423 mi)
5. Don – 1,950 km (1,212 mi)
6. Pechora – 1,809 km (1,124 mi)
7. Kama – 1,805 km (1,122 mi)
8. Oka – 1,500 km (932 mi)
9. Belaya – 1,430 km (889 mi)
10. Tisza – 1,358 km (844 mi)
11. Dniester – 1,352 km (840 mi)
12. Rhine – 1,236 km (768 mi)
13. Elbe – 1,091 km (678 mi)
14. Vistula – 1,047 km (651 mi)
15. Tagus – 1,038 km (645 mi)
16. Daugava – 1,020 km (634 mi)
17. Loire – 1,012 km (629 mi)
18. Ebro – 960 km (597 mi)
19. Nemunas – 937 km (582 mi)
20. Sava – 933 km (580 mi)
21. Oder – 854 km (531 mi)
22. Rhône – 815 km (506 mi)
23. Seine – 776 km (482 mi)
24. Po – 682 km (424 mi)
25. Glomma – 604 km (375 mi)
26. Maritsa – 480 km (298 mi)
27. Vardar – 388 km (241 mi)
28. Shannon – 386 km (240 mi)