Geography of Europe

Landlocked countries
Andorra
• Armenia
• Austria
• Belarus
• Czech Republic
• Hungary
• Kazakhstan
• Kosovo
• Luxembourg
• Liechtenstein
• Republic of Macedonia (name is currently under dispute)
• Moldova
• Nagorno-Karabakh
• San Marino
• Serbia
• Slovakia
• Switzerland
• Transnistria
• Vatican
Notes:
1. Liechtenstein is doubly landlocked.
2. Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, and Macedonia constitute a contiguous landlocked agglomeration of eight countries in Central Europe and the Balkans, stretching from Geneva all the way to Greece.
3. All other landlocked countries (Luxembourg, Andorra, Vatican, San Marino, Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan) are “standalone” landlocked countries, not bordering any other such European one (the emphasis is necessary, since Kazakhstan borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, thus forming a vast landlocked expanse in Central Asia)
4. If states with limited recognition are included, Kosovo joins the Balkan Bloc, while Transnistria and Nagorno-Karabakh will form pairs, with Moldova and Armenia respectively
Countries consisting solely of islands or parts of islands
• Cyprus
• Iceland
• Ireland
• Malta
• Northern Cyprus
• United Kingdom
Countries bordering or spanning another continent
Eurasia Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Cyprus, Turkey, Greece (some Aegean islands)

Europe-Africa Malta, Spain (Ceuta, Melilla and Canary Islands), Italy (Lampedusa and Lampione), Portugal (Madeira)[2], France (Réunion)

Europe-South America France (French Guiana)

Europe-North and Central America Portugal (Western part of the Azores), France (Guadeloupe and Martinique), Netherlands (Bonaire, Saba, and St. Eustatius)

Countries that share a name with their capital
• Luxembourg
• Monaco
• San Marino
• Vatican City
Countries whose capital is not their largest city
Country Capital Largest City
Liechtenstein
Vaduz
Schaan

Malta
Valetta
Birkirkara

San Marino
San Marino
Serravalle

Switzerland
Bern
Zurich

Turkey
Ankara
Istanbul

Note: Italy’s capital, Rome, is the country’s largest city if only the municipality (comune) is considered. According to some definitions of urban zone and metropolitan areas, Milan’s and Naples’ metropolitan areas are larger than Rome’s.
List of countries by the number of other countries they border
Notes
The term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland where its use is objected to by the government of the Republic of Ireland and many of its citizens. (See British Isles naming dispute).

Original Article

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Geography of Asia
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Greece
Spain

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